A concept map is a node-link diagram in which each node represents a concept and each link identifies the relationship between the two concepts it connects.We investigated how using concept maps influences learning by synthesizing the results of 142 independent effect sizes (n = 11,814). A random-effects model meta-analysis revealed that learning with concept and knowledge maps produced amoderate, statistically significant effect (g = 0.58, p less 0.001). A moderator analysis revealed that creating concept maps (g =0.72, p less 0.001) was associated with greater benefit relative to respective comparison conditions than studying concept maps (g =0.43, p less 0.001). Additionalmoderator analyses indicated learning with concept maps was superior to other instructional comparison conditions, and was effective across science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and non-STEM knowledge domains. Further moderator analyses, as well as implications for theory and practice, are provided.
Keywords Conceptmap .Knowledgemap .Meta-analysis .cmap .kmap